http://rationalcatholic.blogspot.se/201 ... ution.html
Esther skrev:Den katolska kyrkan som jag tillhör har egna forskare - som är oerhört framgångsrika inom alla dessa områden. Du misstar dig grovt när du tillskriver mig den protestantiska kyrkans olika organisationers syn på saker och till. För vilka jag inte ens gett uttryck. Jag har inte sett någon här ge skäl för det som de tror på med faktiska underbyggda skäl. Detta att jag tror att man tydligt kan se Gud genom skapelsen är inget kreationistisk - det är den tro som alla de som tror på Gud har.
GOD'S PERIODIC TABLE AND THE EVOLUTION OF MATTER
Cosmic History for the Universe--not to scale
from Wikimedia Commons
In trying to reconstruct how the universe has evolved (pardon that word!), we have to keep in mind that before a time of about 380,000 years after the Big Bang (the presumed origin of the universe from a singularity, i.e. "Ex Nihilo"), the history has to be reconstructed--speculatively--from what we know about the physics of elementary particles--the so-called "Standard Model" (see God, Symmetry and Beauty I and Philosophic Issues in Cosmology 1). The reason we have to infer what happened before this 380,000 year benchmark is the opacity of the early Universe to radiation--it consisted of a high energy plasma of quarks, gluons, photons and, in the later stages, elementary particles such as protons, electrons, neutrons. (See Luke Mastin's Timeline of the Big Bang for a complete, if perhaps somewhat speculative account of the early stages of the evolution.)
For purposes of this discussion, I'll accept (as do most physicists) that "In the Beginning" there was a super-hot tiny ball of energy, "one thing", that changed to quarks, anti-quarks, gluons and then yielded elementary particles--protons, neutrons, electrons. Subsequently gravitation induced star formation with protons and alpha particles (helium-4 nuclei) present in early stars. There would have been a serious obstacle to further formation of the elements because a three-body collision of three alpha particles would be required for the formation of carbon-12 (the next step in formation of the elements) and as those of you who have shot pool know, the probability of a triple collision from random motion of particles is small.
Fred Hoyle (who had derisively labelled creation from a singularity as "The Big Bang"--the name stuck) saw a problem in the abundance of carbon-12 and other elements in the universe and the lack of a mechanism for their creation. He predicted an excited, higher energy state of carbon-12 nuclei that would enhance the formation of carbon-12 by the so-called "triple alpha process" (see the diagram below). His prediction was verified experimentally.
Triple Alpha Process
from Wikimedia Commons
In this process, two alpha particles (helium-4 nuclei) collide to form a beryllium-8 nucleus, which is unstable. However, the likelihood of forming carbon-12 from a collision with an alpha particle is enhanced by a "resonance effect". This effect comes about because an excited, high energy level of the carbon-12 nucleus has almost the same value as the nuclear energy levels of beryllium-8 and helium-4.
Carbon-12 formation would be the bottleneck; if carbon-12 could not be formed, then no oxygen, nitrogen, or heavier elements. All these reactions take place at a very high temperature in the interior of giant stars. When these stars implode, go nova (as with the Crab nebula picture above), all the heavy elements formed in the interior are scattered through the universe for the formation of planets and living organisms.
Here's the important point to be emphasized in this: it is fundamental physics that enables the formation of the elements, the evolution of the Periodic Table, if you will. It is NOT a simultaneous creation of each element. It is a much more wonderful thing to have this occur as a consequence of "natural law", rather than an ad individuum, separate and simultaneous creation of each element. It is evolution, not creation all at once. And it is God who created the rules of physics that enables this evolution.